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关于本地化,你应该知道的事

有些概念看似简单,实则不然。“本地化” 的概念也不例外。本文旨在帮助您更好地理解本地化以及语言服务提供商(LSP)的高效服务对于推动企业发展的重大意义。

 

1. 翻译+当地文化知识=本地化

“本地化” 和 “翻译” 经常出现在类似的语境中,但事实上二者并不完全对等。简言之,本地化的过程并不仅限于翻译,还包括产品与服务发布前相关的各项准备工作,以满足不同海外市场的需求。产品与服务一旦实现本地化,其源语言将被替换为相应的目标语言,同时兼顾到目标语言的语义与文化层面,从而使产品或服务完全适应目标市场的特定需求。

 

2. 机器翻译——更经济的翻译方式?

机器翻译(MT)可以帮助企业在一定程度上消除在全球市场的多语言沟通壁垒。不过,人工翻译的准确率可达 95% 以上,而机器翻译的准确率仅为 70% 左右。虽然机器翻译更经济、快速,但很难确保全部译文的准确性,译文文本更不足以适用于国际市场。因为相对于整个本地化流程而言,翻译只是其中的一个环节。

 

3. 本地化业务流程:

产品与服务的本地化流程较为复杂。因此,企业需要与语言服务提供商紧密配合,以精简本地化流程,并实时跟进所有环节。为了便于理解,我们将逐一介绍本地化项目中的重要角色:

项目经理

项目经理对于项目的把控始终贯穿于本地化项目的始终。为优化项目成果、实现预期目标,项目经理需要与语言专家、本地化工程师、负责质量控制的母语译审人员以及桌面排版工程师密切配合。

软件工程师

软件工程师的职责是对软件产品进行反汇编,并在所有内容实现本地化后完成汇编。软件工程师还需要准备相应的本地化工具包,包括所有与之相关的文件以及供译员使用的说明,以推动翻译工作的顺利开展。

译员

译员的主要工作是在忠于原文与原义的基础上将源语言转化为目标语言,并考量两种语言间的文化差异,以确保将源语言的信息有效传递给目标受众。

母语译审人员

在产品与服务交付客户审核与添加修改批注前,负责质量控制的译审人员需要确保译文符合特定的质量标准。

桌面排版工程师

桌面排版包括对本地化产品与服务的实现与设计,以创建项目成果的最终呈现形式,是本地化项目的最后环节。这意味着在完成桌面排版后,项目经理即可进行项目交付。

 

4. 术语表——本地化项目最重要的“辞典”

在企业扩展海外市场的过程中,确保所有项目与品牌信息在内容方面的一致性至关重要。以下工具可以帮助企业提高信息传播的一致性、强化术语的规范化管理,从而实现更有效的企业内部沟通。

翻译记忆库(TM)

翻译记忆库是存储人工翻译过程中源语言与目标语言片段的语料库。企业可通过利用翻译记忆库显著降低项目成本,并提高工作效率。

术语管理

术语管理包括在所有语言类别间的术语创建、提取、管理与分享,旨在创建企业关键术语存储库,以确保企业各部门间清晰、有效的沟通以及所有文档内容的准确性与一致性。

术语表

翻译术语表是企业的词汇库,规定了企业所有最重要术语的定义及其在不同语言类别中的对照版本。企业可通过实施翻译术语表来消除翻译中的歧义,加速整个本地化流程。

 

5. 本地化测试——关乎产品最终品质

本地化测试是本地化业务流程中最重要的环节之一。在本地化测试过程中,当地市场具有双语能力的母语测试人员将验证产品在不同操作系统中的兼容性,评估产品相对于目标市场的本地化水平。语言服务提供商可通过本地化测试确保产品在发布前满足既定的功能与语言要求,从而消除产品未来可能面临的潜在风险。否则,他们将无法保证产品真正满足上市要求。

为成功进入海外市场,企业必须消除文化与语言壁垒。因此,企业需要选择专业的语言服务提供商,以有效应对进军全球市场过程中所面临的挑战。


What You Didn’tKnow About Localization (L10N):

Simple concepts can sometimes be difficult to grasp.Localization is no exception. The purpose of this guide is to help you betterunderstand what localization is and why using a language service provider (LSP)can make a world of a difference for your business.

1. Translation + local cultural knowledge = localization  

Although localization and translation are often used insimilar contexts, they’re actually not the same thing. Put simply, localizationis the process of not only translating the words, but also preparing allaspects of a product or service to meet the needs of a foreign market. When aproduct or service is localized, the source text is transformed into itslinguistic equivalent, with a focus on local-linguistic semantics and culture,making the product specifically tailored for the target market.

 2. Machine Translation – Is this a cheaper alternative?

With the help of machine translation (MT), companies arecapable of bridging the multilingual communications gap in the globalmarketplace. While human translators have the ability to produce translationswith an accuracy level of 95 percent, MT can only reach 70 percent. Even thoughit’s a cheaper, faster alternative, a machine translation tool is unlikely toproduce an entirely accurate translation, and is most certainly not capable ofproducing text suitable for international markets. Translation is only onesmall step in the localization process.

 3. The LocalizationWorkflow:

Localizingproducts and services can be complicated, so working closely with your languageservice provider will simplify the process and keep you involved every step ofthe way. To offer more clarity, here’s a selection of some of the individuals thatare involved in your localization projects:

 

Project Managers

Project managersoversee a localization project from beginning to end. In order to producehigh-impact results and ensure that goals are met, project managers work closelywith the language specialists, localization engineers, native quality assurancereviewers and desktop publishers. 

 

SoftwareEngineers

The role of a softwarelocalization engineer is to disassemble elements of a product and put them backtogether once the content has been localized. Software engineers are alsoresponsible for preparing a localization toolkit containing all the files andinstructions for the translators to facilitate the translation process.

 

Translators

The primary dutyof a translator is to convert words and meaning from the source to the targetlanguage, while taking cultural differences into consideration to guaranteethat the message is being transmitted effectively to the desired audience.

 

 

 

Native QualityAssurance Reviewers

Before productsand services are given to the clients for a round of reviewing and comments,quality assurance reviewers ensure that the translated text meets a certainstandard of quality.

 

DesktopPublishers

Desktoppublishing, which involves implementing and designing the localized productsand services to give it the final look, is the last phase in a translationproject. Once this phase is completed, the project can be delivered to theclient.

4. The Importance of Glossaries

As companies expand geographically, the importance ofmaintaining consistency across all projects and brands becomes crucial. Thefollowing tools can help mitigate inconsistencies and promote thestandardization of terms for improved communication within an organization.

 

Translation Memory (TM)

A translation memory (TM) is a linguistic databasecontaining segments of human translations in both the source and targetlanguage. Utilizing a translation memory can considerably reduce project costsand increase productivity.

 

TerminologyManagement

Terminologymanagement is the creation, extraction, managing, and sharing of terms acrossall languages. The purpose of terminology management is to create a repositoryof an organization’s key terms to ensure clear and reliable communication acrossdepartments and maintain accuracy and consistency across all its documents. 

 

Glossaries

A translation glossary is a lexicon that contains themost important terms for an organization with definitions and translations. Thepurpose of implementing a translation glossary is to help eliminate ambiguityin the translation and accelerate the localization process.

 5. Testing, testing, testing.

Localizationtesting is one of the most critical steps in the localization process. Duringthis phase, native, in-country, bilingual testers verify the product’scompatibility with different operating systems and evaluate the product’sreadiness for the target market. Ensuring that functional and linguisticproblems are eliminated before a product is released will prevent potentialchallenges down the road. Without this step, an LSP cannot guarantee that theproduct is market ready.

In order to successfully access overseas markets, companies have tounderstand how to combat cultural and linguistic challenges. Working with aprofessional language service provider (LSP) can help avoid the growing painsof going global. 


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